Current Issues


  • An Analysis of Public Health Expenditure in Hyderabad Karnataka Region

    Health status is the outcome of public spending; Public income is the result of human capital standards in the society. Both influences and complements each other growth. Objective of the study is to know the status of Public HealthExpenditure in Hyderabad Karnataka region and analyse the deterministic relation between HK-region’s Gross Domestic Income and Public HealthExpenditure. The study is conducted based on secondary data; analysis is done by using basic statistics and inference drawn upon OLS regression analysis. The percentage public expenditure to RGDP on health is less than 1%, which is not an acceptable indication and considered to be robust hurdle in the process of human capital formation of this region. The region is showing the positive trend in regional domestic income; hence government has leverage to spend more on healthsector.&nbs […]

  • Role of Banks in Ensuring a Sustainable and Inclusive Growth

    Economic growth in India has to be inclusive in order to make it sustainable. Inclusiveness is an essential element in a democracy. If policies that bring about economic growth do not benefit the people in a wide and inclusive manner, they will not be sustainable. Equally, inclusive growth is essential to grow the market size, which alone will sustain growth momentum. Inclusive growth is the only just and equitable way that any society can grow. Financial Inclusion rests on three pillars viz. access to financial services, affordability of such services and actual utilization of such services. Financial Inclusion can be achieved only if all the three pillars show affirmative results. It may prove to be very useful for the banking Industry and the overall Indian economy. It will be useful for policy makers, academicians and researchers in the field. […]

  • Measurement of Technical Efficiency of Durian Production in Thailand: An Application of Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate and measure the technical efficiency of durian production in each province of Thailand using the data envelopment analysis (DEA) during the period 2012-2016. The findings indicate that the technical efficiency of Thai durian production revealed favorable results from 2012 to 2016 but still needs to be improved since the technical efficiency score is not close to 1.000. On the other hand, Chanthaburi province had the highest mean efficiency score and was recognized as the best province for Thai durian production. Moreover, the study found that Phuket province had lowest mean technical efficiency score of Thai durian production, which therefore should be increased the quantity of the outputs and inputs. Therefore, the results of this study can provide important information to farmers, agricultural planners and government agencies to help increase the technical efficiency levels of durian production in Thailand. […]

  • Tax Regulation and Sustainability of Microfinance Institutions in Masvingo Urban, Zimbabwe

    The study seeks to evaluate the effect of the current tax regulatory regime on the sustainability of microfinance institutions (MFIs) in Masvingo urban.  Many governments raise public finance through the taxation of individuals and the business community. Undertaking of this study was mainly motivated by the increase in the number of microfinance institutions after the introduction of the multicurrency system in 2009, but the government is failing to meet its revenue targets. The study was done on 24 loan officers and 8 managers of MFIs. Data was collected using a Likert scale questionnaire. Quantitative data was presented using SPSS. This study found that a tax regulation can enhance the sustainability of MFIs if properly simplified to promote investment in microfinance business through provision of tax exemptions, tax incentives, free registration, simplified record keeping procedures, and reduced tax rates. The study recommends that MFIs should not be heavily taxed if they are to meet a major objective of poverty alleviation. &nbs […]

  • A Study on the Implications of Pradhan Manthri Jan Dhan Yojana on the Growth of Indian Economy

    Indians are transforming from rural India to digital India with so many initiatives by the Central government of our country. The initiatives like Make In India, Jan Dhan Yojana, Swatch Bharat, Demonetization Of Currency are all contributing for the growth of Indian economy. These schemes are to improve the productivity of our country and also for proving a better standard of living for Indians. India is a strong nation with more than 50% of its people is in the working age. With this strength we can achieve success if we work hard with strict rules and regulations. Thus this paper is focusing on the implications of PMJDY scheme in the scenario of developmental aspects across India. […]

  • Performances of the Least Developed Countries under Neo-liberal Regimes: Implications for the implementation of Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development

    The Least Developed Countries (LDCs) have implemented neoliberal policies such as trade liberalization, privatization of public enterprises, and currency devaluation with the expectation to promote their economic growth and development by capturing the gains from international trade through a more efficient allocation of resources and increased private investment. Twenty one countries (constituting 44%) have been designated LDCs since 1971, the introduction of the category for the first time by the United Nations (UN). Development experiences of the LDCs indicate that neoliberal policies are not adequately addressing their development challenges. The LDCs  are still locked into a low equilibrium trap characterized by fragile economic growths, distorted  structural transformation,  low domestic resource, high dependence on external financing , high dependence on primary commodity exports, high external debt burden  and debt services  and  low human development. The LDCs must thus shift to a developmental state approach to strategically integrate into the world economy and to build their productive capacities and to enhance their structural transformation which could lead the countries along the path of sustained economic growth to meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030. The implications for the implementation of Agenda 2030 for sustainable development are that: (i) The LDCs have  to extensively tap their domestic savings potentials and investments to reach 25% or more of their Gross Domestic Product(GDP) to  sustain 7% -8% growth rates per annum that will have a great impact on  poverty reduction in line with the  sustainable development goal 1 (SDG1) . (ii) The LDCs have to select a few SDGs which are of high national priorities and  synchronize them  with their respective national development plans  and determine  the financing needs for the implementation  of the selected SDGs. (iii)  cancellation of external debt of the LDCs  by the creditors in order to release resources needed for their  investments to achieve the SDGs (iv) replacement of foreign aid  by market access for  the LDCs products to  increase their foreign exchange earnings needed for  building their  productive capacities. (v) Maintaining peace and stability and resolving conflicts to release resources needed for their productive investment. […]

  • Developing Actuarial Assumptions within the Framework of a Hyper-Inflationary Environment

    The primary objective of this research is to determine the impact of actuarial assumptions for work liability valuations in Venezuela.  The time frame of interest to the study finds that Venezuela has and continues to experience an extremely volatile rate of inflation.  In such an environment, it is imperative that the discount rate be set as a function of the inflation rate plus a premium.  This study is focused on the challenges of adopting such a policy given the absence of a well-developed capital market. […]

  • Motivation, Competence and Organizational Commitment’s Effect on Lecturers' Job Satisfaction and Lecturers Performance

    Purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of motivation, competence and organizational commitment to job satisfaction lecturers, to analyze the influence motivation, competence and commitment of the organization to the performance of lecturers, to analyze the effects of job satisfaction on the performance of lecturers, and to analyze the influence of motivation, competence and organizational commitment indirectly through job satisfaction on the performance of lecturers. The study population is of 409 lecturers. Determination of the sample using the formula Slovin obtained as many as 202 respondents from the correspondence through the intranet Ministry of Industry of the Republic of Indonesia. Data from the questionnaires were analyzed with structural equation modeling the help of using AMOS (Analysis of Moment Structures) Version 18. The results showed that work motivation has a positive and significant effect on lecturers' job satisfaction and lecturers’ performance. Competence has a positive and insignificant effect on lecturers' job satisfaction, but significant on lecturers performance. Organizational commitment has a positive and significant effect on lecturers' job satisfaction and lecturers’ performance. Lecturers' job satisfaction has a positive and significant effect on lecturers’ performance. The Effect of Lecturers' job satisfaction proved to be significant in explaining the effect of work motivation, competence and organizational commitment on lecturers’ performance. […]

  • Management of Change Delivery Decision Making Through the Force Field Analysis in Georgia

    Children’s generation of Georgia recovers parent’s generations only for 70-80%. According to same data, there are only 14 countries with the similar low indicators. The increase of C-section can cause the decrease of birthdates.WHO recommended The Partnership for Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health - through the creation of an Advocacy Team. (WHO, 2005). This model ensures the relaxed environment where the mothers can receive information delivered by qualified health workers, who teach pregnant women and family members about health and well-being.  Advocacy Team comprises - nurses, medical students, and volunteer.Project benefit will be increased antenatal and postnatal care services through  the country, in the lead the better attitude and knowledge about health and well-being  across all Social levels .  Further families will save money because they couldn't pay for C-section  Evaluation of the project –annual statistical analysis by NCDC (National Center for Disease Control and Public Health) decrease C-section rate for mother request.Project outcome will be increased maternal and Child health and well-being, Increase right participation from the community, Support of pregnant women and her family economically. […]

  • Highlighting Tribal Tourism Potentials of Southern Rajasthan

    Tribes are very mysterious; everything about them is still unexplored and unspoiled.  This research paper highlights potential for the promotion of tribal tourism and various tribes inhabiting in these tribal areas. Further it discusses a strategy to develop a new tourism product to match up with the growing expectations of the tourists in southern Rajasthan. For this, various tourism potentials like their history culture, costume, cuisine etc. have been studied. Further in this paper it has been discussed that tribal tourism is responsible for the positive image building and exploring the unidentified locations of our beautiful and multifaceted state. These days’ tourists are in thrust for new experiences, innovations and adventures. It would be wrong to underestimate that tourists are not willing to experience new cultures and face new challenges of these mysterious tribes.Before writing this paper extensive literature review has been done. The literature review was divided into 3 phases. It consists of extensive survey of literature, profiling the entertainment possibilities for the tourists and finally providing a strategy for the development of tribal tourism in Rajasthan. […]

  • Black Economic Empowerment, Employment Creation and Resilience: The Economic and Social Contribution of Lennox Mine to the Development of Zimbabwe, 1970-2016

    This research sets out to unravel the history of Lennox Mine from its inception in 1970 tracing the contribution of the mine to the economic development of Zimbabwe from its colonial beginnings up to the current period when the new visionary owner, Honourable Gandiwa Moyo, Deputy Minister of Mines who inherited a dysfunctional mining enterprise set it on course again as a pillar for economic production, under the erstwhile management of the Lennox General Mine Manager, Edgar Mashindi. The research seeks to explore how the mine management, operating under harsh economic conditions prevailing in Zimbabwe has empowered African entrepreneurs and employees and resuscitated life to the dying town of Mashava. Mashava is back on its former footing as a lively booming bedroom town of Masvingo City, forty kilometres away: supermarkets, bars, salons, housing projects, new shops are sprouting up once again as Mashava claims its proud place as a gold producing enclave of the Zimbabwean economy. Hundreds of unemployed youths from all over Zimbabwe have descended on Mashava, seeking employment and investment opportunities resulting in an unprecedented economic boom which is being felt country wide. Only recently hordes of flea female market traders opened shop at Mashava to sell clothes, shoes, household furniture and related paraphernalia to local residents and they reported that business was excellent and confirmed business plans to return every month end to sell their wares. A few years back Mashava was an abandoned mining town with all services shut down after the Capitalist oligarchic organization which owned Mashava ceased all operations and expropriated capital to Australia and Europe and started out new commercial ventures in those respective European countries. The Zimbabwean Electricity Supply Association [ZESA] shut down electricity supplies to Lennox Mine after the mine incurred a debt of close to a quarter of a million. Today, Lennox has agreed on a payment plan and electricity has been reopened triggering high gold productivity as the mine returns to its normal production levels. […]

  • Institutional Investments and Their Influence on Stock Returns – An Empirical Study

    Mutual dependency of market variables is crucial for development of any economy. It is equally important to study the stock market for what parameter influences over the others and for what length of time, thus giving direction to investors. Further, Sensex being an important barometer of India’s economic measurement, it would be interesting to know the revelation of its stability while institutional investors influence it in multiple ways over considerable longer period of economy. This study investigates the influence of FII and MF on Sensex over 11 year period between 2004-2015. The objectives were to find out the dependency among the three to conclude about which out theses influences market the most. On applying Unit–root test, Correlation and VAR, the study revealed that there was a regime change for BSE-Sensex returns due to the global recession. The noticeable fact is that change in regime affected the purchase of Mutual Fund which led to increasing in FII investment.   The variation in the investment patterns by institutions brought in heavy market movement. Indian stock market during the selected period was driven by a greater amount of Foreign Investors compared to the domestic investors, the Mutual Fund taken up for  this study. […]

  • Influence of Demographic Factors on Visitor Perceived Value and Visitor Satisfaction in Bangalore Amusement Parks

    The service industry is the most dynamic and ever growing industry in terms of revenue and competition. In order to compete and survive successfully in today’s dynamic environment, all the service providing organisations focus on enhancing their diverse customer base having different demographical patterns that arise after the fulfillment of needs and wants of customers to maximise their profits. The amusement park industry is not an exception to this situation in present market dynamism. With the increase in the number of parks and decrease in footfalls, the amusement parks are in the process to enhance their park image by concentrating on the demographic factors of the visitors. Therefore, researchers are intensely emphasising on the influence of demographic factors on the visitor perceived value and visitor satisfaction. The current research study endeavors to find out the relationship among demographic factors on the perceived value and visitor satisfaction. The sample data is collected from random customers of different amusement parks in Bangalore. The collected data then analyzed using SPSS. The results revealed that there is no significance relation between demographic factors and visitor perceived value and visitor satisfaction. […]

  • Micro-Finance & Micro-Credit for Sustainable Development

    Poverty is one of the biggest challenges to the development of a developing country like India where a major population is living in rural and semi-urban areas. Institutional credit is considered as a powerful tool for alleviating poverty. Microfinance is the supply of loans, savings, and other basic financial services to the poor. As the financial services of microfinance usually involve small amounts of money – small loans, small savings etc. the term "Microfinance" helps to differentiate these services from those of commercial banks. Microfinance in India has been through two channels of credit delivery to poor and low-income households–Self Help Group Bank Linkage Programme (SBLP) and the Microfinance institutions lending through groups as well as directly to individuals. This study was with the overall objective of conducting a detailed analysis of interest rates, costs and margins of microfinance institutions. This study highlights the reach and the impact on the customers and the channels used by these firms for the effectiveness of Micro Finance and Microcredit schemes. For the purpose of analysis the statistical tools like Mean, Standard deviation, coefficient of co-relation and regression have been used. Microfinance is playing a very important role in decrease poverty. Microfinance to the rural SHGs is a way to raise the income level and improve the living standards of the rural peoples. Thus, it can be concluded that the self-help groups contribute substantially in pushing the conditions of the rural population up. […]

  • The Influence of Attitude, Knowledge and Quality on Purchase Intention towards Halal Food: A Case Study of Young Non-Muslim Consumers in Thailand

    This paper investigates the influence of attitude, halal knowledge, halal quality on purchase intention towards halal food of young non-Muslim consumers in Thailand. Consequently, total of 600 questionnaires were distributed and 482 usable responses were obtained yielding a response rate of 80.33%. Our results indicated that attitude has a strongest direct influence on intention to purchase and also the results indicated that halal knowledge has a significant effect on attitude towards halal food and had no significant effect on halal purchase intention. Furthermore, halal quality has significant positive influences on the purchase intention among the studied group in Thailand. Therefore, this paper could provide insights important for manufacturers, marketers and policymakers to understand the perspectives of young non-Muslim consumers in Thailand. […]

  • Testing the Random Walk Theory in the Nigerian Stock Market

    This study tests the random walk theory in the Nigerian stock market by analyzing whether stock returns follow a random walk distribution. The study employs the daily returns of the Top 20 most performing stocks on the NSE for the period January 1st 2010 to December 31st 2014. Autocorrelation and runs test were employed for hypothesis testing.  Based on our analysis, we found that the daily stock returns of the 20 most active stocks on the Nigerian stock market are randomly distributed indicating that Nigerian Stock market is informational efficient at the weak form level. The implication of the finding is that no one can fool the market consistently for a long time by trading on the basis of past information such as historical stock prices. The study recommends that more efforts should be made to reposition the market to attract more investible funds from domestic and foreign investors. […]

  • Paradigm Shift from Market Driven to Market Driving Strategy in Smartphone Handset Industry: A Comparison

    Marketing has changed rapidly over time. Especially the Hi-Tech Industry has shifted its marketing strategies from traditional customer driven strategies to modern customer driving strategies. Customer driven market strategies focused on understanding the needs of the customers and satisfying those needs whereas customer driving strategies deals with generating needs, creating value proposition and delighting the customers by providing new-to-the-world products. The paper focused on the fundamentals of both the market driven and market driving strategies. It provides a comparison between both the strategies and concludes that hi-tech industry has successfully adopted the market driving strategies. […]


  • Retrieval of Similarity Measures of Code Component

    Modern programming languages, especially object oriented languages facilitate to create libraries of reusable components (e.g. class definition). The majority of software companies are designing the components and reusing those wherever applicable. Maintaining such components (i.e. class library) and accessing those at right time in right form is challenging because large no. of components in library. Object Oriented Programming supports the reusability of the code. The major challenge in programming is to improve the learning quality and productivity of the software developer, subject teachers and students. To support programming in Java, researcher implemented a design retrieval algorithm which will make it possible to search through potentially reusable Java classes. The proposed work, selects the appropriate descriptors of the inputted cases - .java files. It will separate the code components automatically and stores in the repository. The different levels of ambiguity in selection of cases are controlled through data preprocessing technique of data mining. The set of adjustments applied to get the similarity of the code components. […]


  • Teaching the Arithmetic Sequence through Guided Discovery Learning: A Pedagogical Experiment in Viet Nam

    “Let the student learn by discovery” has become the slogan of our country for recent years. Learning by discovery that has used by Vietnamese teacher is a term has appeared in Viet Nam in the past few years. This study proposes Guided Discovery learning to teach arithmetic sequence topic in Viet Nam high school. It is hypothesized that student. Student’s outcomes of teaching arithmetic sequence topic with Guided Discovery Learning are not greater than the ones of teaching this subject with the traditional method of instruction and students’ achievements after experiment are not better than students’ achievements before the experiment. Two eleven -classes were involved in the trial to investigate the effectiveness of Guided Discovery Learning,. The result suggests that students have better concept retention. […]

  • Managing Performance in the Higher Education System

    Managing Performance of employees plays a focal role in any organisation. The current study identifies the need of an efficient and biased free Performance management system in the Higher Education Institutions. Performance Management plays a vital role in motivating the employees to bring efficiency in the work place. Although institutions and the management are aware of its relevance and the positive outcomes, yet it remains more of a concept which is actually not implemented correctly. With the helping of existing literature and data sources, this paper aims to highlight the importance of Performance management systems. Also suggesting how to overcome the various hindrances that are been faced in the institutions.&nbs […]

  • An Ecological Panorama on How Parental Involvement Affects Academic Achievement of Secondary School Pupils in Masvingo

    This study explored the influence of an ecological perspective on the parental involvement on secondary school pupil’s academic performance. It was influenced by Urie Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory. A qualitative research was adopted through an interpretivist paradigm. The research participants comprised of two teachers and five parents. The research instrument used was the one to one interviews with the both the teachers and the parents. A thematic data analysis was used to analyse data solicited from the research participants. Findings from the teachers revealed that some parents were partially involved in the learning of their pupils and some pupils were found not to be doing their homework. Ultimately, this derailed the whole learning process. In addition diverse sentiments were outlined by the parents including the   claim that it was the teachers’ obligation to ensure that children were consistently assisted by the teachers. Their argument was based on the understanding that parents are paying full fees, therefore they expect the best out of their money.    Some parents indicated that, as much as they would want to assist their children,  they are to some extent incapacitated The researcher recommended that if the parents are unable to assist their children, they should find  other means to do so . The same applies with teachers who are encouraged to reconsider ways of assisting children who cannot get parental assistance. […]

  • Motive Factors of B.Ed Student Teachers for Choosing Teaching as their Calling

    It is obvious that quality of teaching force is not governed only by the qualification, pedagogical knowledge and teaching skill of teachers, but also their enthusiasm, motivation, dedication and commitment in teaching. Student teachers have a substantial impact on the education of future generations. In order for a system of teacher education to be effective, it needs to recognize and build on the characteristics and motivations that student teachers bring with them when they enter teacher education program after their completion of graduation or post graduation. Holistic teacher building is necessary and therefore teacher education needed more emphasis than mere training by high positive motivation of the student teachers for choosing the teaching as their calling. The data for the present study were collected from a population of student teachers. In the present study, Survey Method is employed to describe and interpret. The sample size chosen for B.Ed., student teachers are 500 (250 Male and 250 Female) of the Pudukkottai District, Tamil Nadu, India. The findings revealed that female student teachers have manifested significantly higher level in all the selected variables when compared to their counter parts. The independent variables such as positive and negative emotion, altruism, moral value, teacher's attitude and personal and social influence correlate significantly with motivation positively. The coefficient of determination R square measures the goodness-of-fit with the value of 0.249 and this means that the independent variables contributes to the extent of 24.9% to motivation and it is significant at 1% level.&nbs […]

  • A Study on Various Factors Affecting the Need for Industry Institute Interaction

    “Education is the process of facilitating learning or the process of acquiring knowledge, skills and attitude. Education enlightens the people and empowers them towards many issues. An institute is a place where the student is equipped with all the required skills to face the external world. But in the present days there is a wide gap between the needs of the industry and the employability skills of graduates coming out of various professional colleges. Only 3.84% of engineering students are possessing employability skills and there is no much difference in the other courses. Thus there is a need for industry institute interaction to bridge the gap. This interaction should help the institutes to develop professionals and the industry should get the required personnel. […]

  • A Sociological Study of Health Consciousness among the Senior Citizens: With Special Reference to Radhey Green Colony of Dayalbagh Area of Agra City

    Health is one of the most important assets of human being and can be viewed as prerequisite for individual and national development. It is popular saying in Indian Society since ancient times ‘Health is the wealth’. It is true even today. The expansion of Yoga, meditation and modern health technology through mass-media, people are being more and more aware toward their health. Our government is also aware for wellbeing of health of our every individual including senior citizens. Senior citizens are the assets and heritage of our society as they have a long experience of socio-economic, cultural and environment issues. Society cares their health and lives and makes them conscious towards their health. Their health depends on their consciousness. But the health consciousness among senior citizens is a complex phenomenon and heterogeneous process determined by a number of physical, emotional, biological and socio-cultural factors. It is a subjective mental attention toward one’s health, hygiene and environment. &nbs […]

  • Attitude of School Teachers of Dooars Region of West Bengal towards Elementary Education

    Teachers are one of the most important components in education system. Apart from teaching learning, teachers are directly involved towards mental, physical, moral, spiritual, and psycho-social development of the students. This study conducted in Jalpaiguri, a Sarva Shiksha Mission (SSM) district of West Bengal to evaluate and assess the level of achievement earned by the Elementary Teachers from the SSM. While the level of attitude of school teachers towards elementary education (Y) had been the dependent/predictor character (Y), the contributory factors had been Age (X1), Education of teachers (X2), Training Experience (X3), Year of Experience (X4), Engagement in other activity (X5), Family Income (X6), Social Participation (X7), Interaction with Head Teacher (X8), Interaction with School Inspectors (X9), Interaction with SSM Personnel (X10), Organizational Interfacing (X11), Involvement in SSM activities (X12), Value Judgement (X13), Response about SSM activities (X14), Use of TL Materials (X15), Exposures to Media (X16), and Opinion about present education system (X17). The statistical analysis illustrated that while the variables: like (1) Education of teachers (X2), Engagement in other activity (X5), Family Income (X6), Social Participation (X7), Interaction with Head Teacher (X8), Use of TL Materials (X15) had wielded a substantive effect on the determining level of attitude of school teachers towards elementary education (Y) and (2) variables: like Year of Experience (X4), Interaction with Head Teacher (X8) have been found to exercise significant regressional effect on the level of attitude of school teachers towards elementary education (Y). […]

  • Effect of Co-Curricular Activities on Academic Achievement of Students

    Development of child’s body and mind demand proper nurturing of its physical and intellectual qualities as few of the major determinants of his personality. Therefore, modern approaches of education emphasize on all round development of the child. The process of education is not something static or one time measure rather, continuous and life long endeavor that can be divided in two parts; curricular activities and co-curricular activities. . Co-curricular activities, as the name implies, are those, not directly related with the prescribed curriculum and include; sports, athletics, scouting, cubing, various hobbies, excursions literary societies, dramatics, debates etc. to bring social and physical adjustments in the child.The study concluded that in wholesome the overall effect of co-curricular activities on the student’s academic performance and personality development is positive. And it compliments the academic activities in attainment of education’s main goal of bringing change in student’s behavior. […]

  • Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) of Geography Teachers’ and its Effect on Self-efficacy and Teacher Effectiveness in West Bengal, India

    The present study is concerned with the subject of Geography and its teachers in secondary school. The objective was to find out the status of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in Geography teachers and also its effect on Self-efficacy and Teacher effectiveness together. For conducting this study descriptive survey method was employed. The data was collected from 401 Geography teachers of secondary schools of West Bengal. The data was analyzed through SPSS 21. The MANOVA result led to reject the null hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance that there would be no significant multivariate effect for the combined dependent variables of self-efficacy and teacher effectiveness in respect of teachers’ level of PCK in geography with Wilks' Lambda (i.e. Exact Statistic) value of .970, Pillai's Trace value of .030, Hotelling’s Trace value of .031 and Roy's Largest Root value of .031. All the ‘p’ values were less than .05. Post hoc test showed that teachers with high level of PCK in Geography were significantly different from the teachers having moderate and low levels of PCK in geography in their self-efficacy. On the other hand, teachers with high level of PCK were significantly different from the teachers having low levels of PCK in geography in teacher effectiveness. Study also revealed that, teachers self-efficacy is positively related with teacher effectiveness in geography teaching. […]


  • Water Quality Variation while Transporting Hypselobarbus Kurali Anesthetized with 2- Phenoxy Ethanol

    Transportation of fishes from study site to the laboratory needs lot of care as the fish is very sensitive to even minor changes in the surroundings. The prime response from the fishes was random running and hitting its head and body against the medium in which it is transported. Secondly it was found excreting a lot of ammonia waste which will degrade the water quality and there by lead to poor survival chances. Anesthetized transportation thus forms a boon in aquaculture. The fish meant for transportation is anesthetized hence it will not run and also will not eliminate wastes. A solution of 1 ml of 2- Phenoxy ethanol in 5 l of water was prepared and used for the transportation trials which were conducted in heavy duty poly bags.  The average weight of brood fish was 200 g.  Five numbers of brood fishes were accommodated in a bag for the transportation for 2 hours. Water quality parameters like temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, ammonia and alkalinity were assessed following standard methods using water quantity analyzing probe (Eutech, S-660).  The studies were carried out repeatedly four times during transportation so as to confirm results. The results have shown that as time proceeds the water quality of control changed drastically whereas the experiment retained the change in water quality towards a standard range throughout the transportation trial. As the fishes are anesthetized the biological activities will slow down which result in lesser consumption of oxygen, low excretory waste and so on. So anesthetizing H.kurali with 2- phenoxy ethanol is advisable.&nbs […]